The mass percent of the active component(s) in the ingredient as listed.
The intrinsic property of a substance to be injurious to an aquatic organism in a short-term exposure to that substance.
1. Acute toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours.
2. The degree to which a substance or mixture of substances can cause harmful effects in an animal of the kingdom Mammalia through a single or short-term exposure.
An alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE or APEO) is an alkylphenol which has reacted with ethylene oxide. Most APE/APEO surfactants are made from a branched-chain nonylphenol or octylphenol.
The minimum temperature at which a 1:1 mixture (by volume) of hydrocarbon and pure aniline are miscible with each other.
Reference: Mineral and Pigment Solutions, Inc. Glossaries
The solubility of a substance is its concentration in a saturated solution of solvent. Aqueous (water) solubility refers to the solubility measured with water as the solvent.
Reference: General Chemistry Online! by Fred Senese at Frostburg State University, General Chemistry Glossary
A liquid mixture of two or more substances that retains the same composition in the vapor state as in the liquid state when distilled or partially evaporated under a certain pressure. Consequently, the composition of an azeotrope cannot be changed by simple distillation. Also known as a constant boiling mixture.
Reference: Dortmund Data Bank (DDB)
Reference: Oxford Reference Online, Dictionary of Chemistry
A substance that increases in concentration in living organisms as they take in contaminated air, water, or food because the substance is very slowly metabolized or excreted.
Progressive increase in the amount of a substance in an organism or part of an organism which occurs because the rate of intake exceeds the organism's ability to metabolize or excrete the substance from the body.
Related terms: bioconcentration, biomagnification
The potential for a substance to increase in concentration in living organisms as they take in contaminated air, water, or food because the substances are very slowly metabolized or excreted.
The USDA definition of Biobased under Section 9002 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 is, "a product determined by the Secretary to be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products or renewable domestic agricultural materials (including plant, animal, and marine materials) or forestry materials."
Executive Order 13134 on Developing and Promoting Biobased Products and Bioenergy defines a biobased product as "a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable domestic agriculture (plant, animal, and marine) or forestry materials."
For more information, visit the USDA's BioPreferred program website.
Process leading to a higher concentration of a substance in an organism than in environmental media to which it is exposed. After WHO, 1979.
Measure of the tendency for a substance in water to accumulate in fish tissue or in issues of other organisms. The equilibrium concentration of a substance in fish can be estimated by multiplying the concentration of the substance in the surrounding water by the fish bioconcentration factor for that chemical. This parameter is an important determinant for human intake by the aquatic food ingestion route. After USEPA, 1986.
Breakdown of a substance catalyzed by enzymes in vitro or in vivo. This may be characterized as:
1. Primary. Alteration of the chemical structure of a substance resulting in loss of a specific property of that substance.
2. Ultimate. Complete breakdown of a compound to either fully oxidized or reduced simple molecules (such as carbon dioxide/methane, nitrate/ammonium, and water).
It should be noted that the products of biodegradation can be more harmful than the substance degraded.
The biodegradation heading in CleanGredients® refers to the rate of aerobic biodegradation based on standard test methods. For more detailed information regarding the definitions of "Ready Biodegradation" and "Ultimate Biodegradation" for specific ingredient classes in CleanGredients®, see the relevant Ingredient Attributes pages.
Sequence of processes in an ecosystem by which higher concentrations are attained in organisms at higher trophic levels (at higher levels in the food web).
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure; also the condensation point.
Reference: Links for Chemists
: Chemical Information: Dictionaries & Encyclopedia: Chemistry Dictionary @ CIC CA.
A material added to a soap or synthetic detergent formulation that enhances or maintains the cleaning efficiency of the surfactant. Performance capability depends upon the builder compound used. Principal functions include supplying alkalinity and buffering to maintain alkalinity at effective cleaning levels. Other functions include reducing water hardness (either by sequestration or chelation) and helping to keep removed soil in suspension.
Related terms: chelating agent, sequestering agent,
Reference: Modified from ASTM Standard Terminology Relating to Soaps and Other Detergents
The Domestic Substances List (DSL) is the sole basis for determining whether a substance is new for the purposes of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA, 1999). Substances on the DSL do not require notification unless they are proposed for a Significant New Activity (SNAc) as indicated on the DSL. Substances not appearing on the DSL are considered to be new to Canada and are subject to notification under the New Substances Notification Regulations (Chemical and Polymers) and New Substances Notification Regulations (Organisms) of CEPA, 1999.
The Non-domestic Substances List (NSDL) specifies substances that are not on the DSL but are in commercial use internationally. As a basis for this list, Environment Canada used the United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Substances on the NSDL are subject to notification under the Regulations of CEPA, 1999 but may require different information in the New Substance Notification (NSN) packages.
Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) substances that are determined to be "toxic" are recommended for addition to the List of Toxic Substances (Schedule 1) of the Act.
The definition of toxic according to CEPA:
64. For the purposes of this Part and Part 6, except where the expression “inherently toxic” appears, a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that:
(a) have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity;
(b) constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends;
(c) constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health.
A chemical substance or a mixture of chemical substances which induce cancer or increase its incidence.
GHS places chemicals in one of five categories with respect to carcinogenicity:
- Category 1A: Known to have carcinogenic potential for humans
- Category 1B: Presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans
- Category 2: Suspected human carcinogen
- Not classified as a carcinogen (weight of evidence or sufficient data is available to determine not a carcinogen)
- Classification unknown (due to insufficient data)
Chemical Abstracts Service
The Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN) is a unique numerical identifier for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, alloys and other substances. A CAS RN includes up to 10 digits which are separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first group, starting from the left, has up to 7 digits; the second group has 2 digits; the final group consists of a single check digit used to verify the validity and uniqueness of the entire number. For example, 7732-18-5 is the CAS RN for water.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), list includes over 800 chemicals from
Section 102 of CERCLA
Clean Water Act list of hazardous substances and priority pollutants (Section 211(b)(2)(a) or 307(a) )
Any hazardous waste as defined under section 3001 of Resource Conservation and Recovery act
Clean Air Act list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (section 112)
Toxic Substances Control Act list of imminent hazards (Section 7)
Classification of surfactants by ionic charge.
1. A chemical compound in the form of a heterocyclic ring, containing a metal ion attached by coordinate bonds to at least two nonmetal ions.
2. The complex formed when a chelating agent binds a metal ion.
Chelate is sometimes used to refer to a chemical agent that complexes a metal ion (i.e., as a synonym for chelating agent).
An organic chemical that forms two or more coordination bonds with a central metal ion. Heterocyclic rings are formed with the central metal ion as part of each ring. Chelating agents can change the properties of metal ions, help to transport metal ions, and prevent scale formation.
The chemical class of ingredients as entered by ingredient suppliers/submitters.
Chronic aquatic toxicity means potential or actual properties of a substance to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms during exposures which are determined in relation to the life-cycle of the organism.
A chronic health effect is an adverse health effect resulting from long-term exposure to a substance. The effects could be a skin rash, bronchitis, cancer, or any other medical condition. An example would be liver cancer from inhaling low levels of benzene at your workplace over several years. The term is also applied to a persistent (months, years, or permanent) adverse health effect resulting from a short-term (acute) exposure.
The upper temperature limit at which a nonionic surfactant in solution may separate out (precipitate). Both powders and liquids can have cloud points, but, generally, liquids have more of a tendency to "cloud out" at high temperatures. Clouding is problematic because once a chemical component falls out of a solution, that solution can lose a considerable amount of its cleaning ability.
The appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue and lightness (or brightness) and saturation.
Reference: wordreference.com English Dictionary
The reaction product formed from a chelating agent or sequestrant and a metal ion; the chelated or sequestered metal ion. For example, Cu(EDTA)2-
is the EDTA complex of the copper (II) ion.
Related terms: association
Component or substance means chemical elements and their compounds in the natural state or obtained by any production process, including any additive necessary to preserve the stability or solvency of the products and any impurity deriving from the process used. Specifically, in CleanGredients®
components are the individual chemicals intentionally added or present at concentrations higher than 0.1%, including but not limited to the active surfactants, that constitute the ingredient as listed. All components must be identified for third-party review for listing in CleanGredients®
Related term: Substance.
Skin corrosion means the production of irreversible damage to the skin following the application of a test substance for up to 4 hours.
A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. For example, a chemical is considered to be corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described by the U.S. Department of Transportation in appendix A to 49 CFR part 173, it destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the site of contact following an exposure period of four hours. This term shall not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.
For a comparison of definitions and criteria for the OSHA HCS and the GHS see: http://www.osha.gov/dsg/hazcom/GHSOSHAComparison.html. p>
Related terms: irritant, skin
A corrosive material is a highly reactive substance that causes obvious damage to living tissue. Corrosives act either directly, by chemically destroying the part (oxidation), or indirectly by causing inflammation. Acids and bases are common corrosive materials. Corrosives such as these are also sometimes referred to as caustics. Typical examples of acidic corrosives are hydrochloric (muriatic) acid and sulfuric acid. Typical examples of basic corrosives are sodium hydroxide and lye.
The OSHA definition of corrosive in 29 CFR 1910.1200 App. A is, "A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. For example, a chemical is considered to be corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described by the U.S. Department of Transportation in appendix A to 49 CFR part 173, it destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the site of contact following an exposure period of four hours. This term shall not refer to action on inanimate surfaces."
Rust and electrochemical oxidation are forms of corrosion that occur on metals, but a) these occur on a much slower time scale and b) these are not a health effect and, therefore, are not usually noted on an MSDS. The U.S. Department of Transportation includes metal in their definitions.
Reference: OSHA definition of corrosive in 29 CFR 1910.1200 App. A.
Material, other than the principal product, generated as a breakdown product in a living system or in the environment from physical, chemical, or microbiological processes.
Degradation products of concern for surfactants and solvents are compounds that are classified by GHS as Acute Category 1 or 2 for aquatic toxicity and that are not ultimately biodegradable. (GHS Acute Category 1 or 2 refers to L/E/IC50 ≤ 10 ppm which mineralize <60% in 28
days. Ultimately biodegradable refers to >60% mineralization in 28 days.)
The ratio of mass to volume of a substance under specified conditions of pressure and temperature.
Dermal (percutaneous, skin) absorption describes the transport of chemicals from the outer surface of the skin to the systemic circulation.
Reference: OECD, 2004 Guidance Document for the Conduct of Skin Absorption studies No. 28.
Reference: WHO, Environmental Health Criteria 235: Dermal Absorption.
An ingredient that meets the DfE Criteria for Safer Chemical Ingredients
is an ideal candidate for use in a cleaning product recognized by the EPA Design for the Environment (DfE) Formulator Program. Ingredients that do not meet the DfE Criteria may still be considered by the Formulator Program on a case-by-case basis.
Certain products intended for use outdoors are likely to bypass sewage treatment, limiting the time for degradation prior to entering sensitive environments. For these products, like boat cleaners and graffiti removers, DfE has raised the bar in its standard environmental criteria to address the potential for immediate contact with aquatic life. Any ingredients (including surfactants, preservatives, solvents, etc.) that have aquatic toxicity values <10 mg/L are not allowed in DfE-recognized direct release products.
Design for the Environment Green Formulation Initiative (now defunct).
The initial boiling point and final boiling point of a solvent.
The effective concentration of substance that causes 50% of the maximum response. This is the metric used by CleanGredients® to quantify the acute aquatic toxicity of a substance with respect to invertebrates (e.g., Daphnia).
An endocrine disruptor is an external agent that interferes in some way with the role of natural hormones in the body. An agent might disrupt the endocrine system by affecting any of the various stages of hormone production and activity, such as by preventing the synthesis of hormones, by directly binding to hormone receptors, or by interfering with the natural breakdown of hormones.
This link can be used to identify substances prioritized for testing for endocrine disruption by the European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/endocrine/strategy/substances_en.htm#priority_list. To download the list of substances, see the zipped file under the heading “Priority List”.
This report describes the process used to develop the EU endocrine disrupters priority list: Study on enhancing the Endocrine Disrupter priority list with a focus on low production volume chemicals.
At this time, the U.S. EPA does not consider endocrine disruption to be an adverse endpoint per se, but a step that could lead to toxic outcomes, such as cancer or adverse reproductive effects.
Effective concentration, 50% (EC50
) in terms of reduction of growth rate.
EU rules on detergent labeling and biodegradability (called Regulation (EC) No. 648/2004).
The rate at which a particular substance will vaporize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as n-butyl acetate.
1. The lowest temperature (corrected to a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa) at which the application of an ignition source causes the vapors of a liquid to ignite under specified test conditions.
2. The lowest temperature at which evaporation of a substance produces enough vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air.
Reference: 1. GHS/OECD
Reference: 2. U.S. EPA Pesticide Glossary
A complex mixture of fragrance raw materials for use in a cleaning product for the primary purpose of imparting a scent and/or masking base odor.
Related terms: fragrance raw material
Any basic substance, obtained by chemical synthesis or derived from a natural source, present in a fragrance at greater than 0.01% by weight. Fragrance raw materials include aroma chemicals, fragrant extracts (essential oils), and all auxiliary materials, including--but not limited to--solvents, surfactants/solubilizers, UV inhibitors, antioxidants, stabilizers, preservatives, and fixatives.
The temperature at which a liquid solidifies at normal atmospheric pressure (typically identical to melting point).
GRAS substances are those whose use is generally recognized by experts as safe, based on their extensive history of use in food before 1958 or based on published scientific evidence.
Reference: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FDA/IFIC Brochure: January 1992.
Genotoxicity and genotoxic apply to agents or processes which alter the structure, information content, or segregation of DNA, including those which cause DNA damage by interfering with normal replication processes, or which in a non-physiological manner (temporarily) alter its replication. Genotoxicity test results are usually taken as indicators for mutagenic effects.
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals.
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) addresses classification of chemicals by types of hazard and proposes harmonized hazard communication elements, including labels and safety data sheets. It aims to ensure that information on physical hazards and toxicity from chemicals is available in order to enhance the protection of human health and the environment during the handling, transport, and use of these chemicals. The GHS also provides a basis for harmonization of rules and regulations on chemicals at national, regional and worldwide level, an important factor also for trade facilitation.
The first edition of the GHS, which was intended to serve as the initial basis for the global implementation of the system, was approved by the Committee of Experts at its first session (11-13 December 2002) and published in 2003. At its second session (10 December 2004), the Committee of Experts adopted a set of amendments to the GHS, which were consolidated in document ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/32/Add.3 and ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/32/Add.3/Corr.1. This first revised edition of the GHS (GHS Rev.1) takes account of all these amendments, which include various revised provisions concerning classification and labelling, new provisions for aspiration hazards and new guidance on the use of precautionary statements and pictograms and on the preparation of safety data sheets.
The definition of HAPs is given in Clean Air Act sections 112(b)(2) and (3). The original list of 189 HAPs (since reduced to 188 compounds) can be found at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/orig189.html
The hydrophile-lipophile balance is used to describe the hydrophilic character of a nonionic surfactant. The higher the HLB, the more hydrophilic it is.
The ability of a test substance to suppress immune responses that could enhance the risk of infectious or neoplastic disease or to induce inappropriate stimulation of the immune system, thus contributing to allergic or autoimmune disease.
Reference: EPA OPPTS
According to the EPA, the List Category policy, created in 1987, has served its purpose as a tool for prioritizing the evaluation of chemicals. Now that reassessment of food tolerances/tolerance exemptions under the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) is complete, there are no longer inerts classified as List 1, 2, or 3. All-food use inert ingredient tolerances and tolerance exemptions are considered to be safe when used according to the conditions set forth in the CFR's text and tables. The “4A” category is still being used for the purposes of FIFRA Section 25(b), and USDA is still utilizing "List 4" for its National Organic Program. For non-food inert ingredients, the 1987 List Category policy remains pertinent (including labeling) for those identified as "List 1" (toxicological concern).
For more information, including links to the various lists, see http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/inerts/lists.html.
Inflammation involves an influx of blood or other fluid into bodily tissue or organs in reaction to injury, disease, and/or foreign substances. Inflammation is marked by swelling, redness, heat, and/or pain.
Reference: Source: OSHA
The terms ingredient and preparation for the purposes of CleanGredients® refer to a single surfactant component or a complex blend of solvents, stabilizers, co-surfactants, etc. in a mixture in which they do not react. All surfactant preparations/ingredients in CleanGredients® (not individual actives or components) must be ultimately biodegradable (i.e., ingredient must meet the threshold pass level of 60% in the prescribed test in 28 days) and must not contain components that result in degradation products that are classified by GHS as Acute Category 1 or 2 for aquatic toxicity and that are not ultimately biodegradable. (GHS Acute Category 1 or 2 refers to L/E/IC50 ≤ 10ppm. Not ultimately biodegradable refers to >60% biodegradability in 28 days.)
A classification of chemicals for which there is unequivocal evidence of biodegradation (primary or ultimate) in any test of biodegradability.
Reference: Source: OECD TG301
The concentration at which growth or activity is inhibited by 50%. This is the metric used by CleanGredients® to quantify the acute aquatic toxicity of a substance with respect to algae.
This category includes all inorganic soluble forms of phosphate, such as, phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and its salts or phosphate salts, pyrophosphates, polyphosphates, and organic and inorganic forms of phosphorous that can be oxidized to phosphates rapidly.
Inorganic forms of phosphonic acid (H2PO3) are not included in this category because monopotassium phosphonic acid (CAS RN 13977-65-6) has been shown not to be an algal nutrient, not to be a replacement for phosphate in algal growth medium, and not to cause exponential growth of green algae.
Reference: U.S. EPA DfE Criteria for Safer Chelating and Sequestering Agents
Eye irritation means the production of changes in the eye following the application of test substance to the anterior surface of the eye, which are fully reversible within 21 days of application.
A chemical is an eye irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in 16 CFR 1500.42 or other appropriate techniques. Source: Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) according to Appendix A 29 CFR 1910.1200, the Hazard Communication Standard.
For a comparison of definitions and criteria for the OSHA HCS and the GHS see: http://www.osha.gov/dsg/hazcom/GHSOSHAComparison.html. p>
16 CFR 1500.3 defines a primary irritant as a substance that is not corrosive and that human experience data indicate is a primary irritant and/or means a substance that results in an empirical score of five or more when tested by the method described in Sec. 1500.41.
Reference: Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) according to Appendix A 29 CFR 1910.1200, the Hazard Communication Standard.
Skin irritation means the production of reversible damage to the skin following the application of a test substance for up to 4 hours.
A chemical which is not corrosive but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. A more general definition is a substance which on immediate, prolonged, or repeated contact with normal living tissue will induce a local inflammatory reaction. A chemical is a skin irritant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the methods of 16 CFR 1500.41 for four hours exposure or by other appropriate techniques, it results in an empirical score of five or more. Source: Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) according to Appendix A 29 CFR 1910.1200, the Hazard Communication Standard.
For a comparison of definitions and criteria for the OSHA HCS and the GHS see: http://www.osha.gov/dsg/hazcom/GHSOSHAComparison.html. p>
Related terms: corrosion, skin
The kauri-butanol (KB) value of a solvent represents the maximum amount of that solvent that can be added to a stock solution of kauri resin (a fossil copal) in butyl alcohol without causing cloudiness. Since kauri resin is readily soluble in butyl alcohol but not in hydrocarbon solvents, the resin solution will tolerate only a certain amount of dilution. "Stronger" solvents such as toluene can be added in a greater amount (and thus have a higher KB value) than "weaker" solvents like hexane. The kauri-butanol test is a common cloud-point test for ranking hydrocarbon solvent strength.
The concentration of a chemical in air or of a chemical in water which causes the death of 50% (one half) of a group of test animals. This is the metric used by CleanGredients® to quantify the acute aquatic toxicity of a substance with respect to fish.
The amount of a chemical, given all at once, which causes the death of 50% (one half) of a group of test animals. This is the metric used by CleanGredients® to quantify the mammalian toxicity of a substance.
Reference: ISO 14040:1997: Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Framework.
The base-10 logarithm of the partition coefficient of a substance between octan-1-ol and water. As an empirical measure for lipophilicity, used for calculating bioaccumulation, fish toxicity, membrane adsorption and penetration etc.
An incremental reactivity (IR) calculated for a volatile organic mixture where the emissions of NOx
(NO + NO2
) have been adjusted to maximize the calculated MIR.
IR = ∆[O3]/∆[VOC]
For a specified set of meteorological conditions, emissions, and initial concentrations, the incremental reactivity of an organic compound is the change in the peak ozone concentration, in grams, divided by an incremental change in the initial concentration and emissions of the organic compound.
is a trade name owned by a company (AZUR) that produced analytical equipment to perform the test. AZUR's website is http://www.azurenv.com/mtox.htm
. Visit the bibliography at www.azurenv.com
for over 500 publications covering applications of the Microtox®
Environment Canada's Environmental Choice Program calls for the Toxicity Test Using Luminescent Bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) as an option for testing for aquatic toxicity. This test is Environment Canada's test method EPS 1/RM/24 and is equivalent to the Microtox® Test. Environment Canada's test method EPS 1/RM/24 can be found at: http://www.ec.gc.ca/publications/index.cfm.
More information on Microtox® testing services including a round robin test of the method can be found at: http://www.dreamscape.com/aquatox/microtox.html.
Reference: For a comparison of the Microtox® assay to traditional acute aquatic toxicity tests, see: Klaus L.E. Kaiser and Virginia s. Palabrica. 1991. Photobacterium phosphoreum Toxicity Data Index. Water Poll. Res. J. Canada. Volume 26, No. 3. pp. 361-431.
Material Safety Data Sheet
1. A chemical or a mixture of chemical substances that have the ability to cause changes in the genetic material in the nucleus of cells in ways that allow the changes to be transmitted during cell division.
2. Mutagen and mutagenic describe agents giving rise to an increased occurrence of mutations in populations of cells and/or organisms.
An adverse change in the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system following exposure to a chemical, physical, or biological agent.
Reference: U.S. EPA Guidelines for Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment
No observed effect concentration.
1. A measure of differential solubility of a compound in two solvents, namely n-octanol and water. The logarithmic ratio of the concentrations of the solute in the solvent is called Log K.
2. Measure of lipophilicity by determination of the equilibrium distribution between octan-1-ol and water, as used in pharmacological studies and in the assessment of environmental fate and transport of organic chemicals.
Reference: 1. Links for Chemists
: Chemical Information: Dictionaries & Encyclopedia: Wikipedia.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
The origin of feedstock attribute allows suppliers to indicate the percent by mass of the organic portion of an ingredient that is derived from a biological feedstock (plant, animal, plant and animal, none, or unknown).
Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration Hazard Communication Standard.
In order to ensure chemical safety in the workplace, information must be available about the identities and hazards of the chemicals. OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires the development and dissemination of such information. Chemical manufacturers and importers are required to evaluate the hazards of the chemicals they produce or import, and prepare labels and material safety data sheets (MSDSs) to convey the hazard information to their downstream customers. All employers with hazardous chemicals in their workplaces must have labels and MSDSs for their exposed workers, and train them to handle the chemicals appropriately.
Additional characteristics of an ingredient that may be relevant to human and environmental health or have other environmental benefits when formulated in a product (e.g., designed for use in cold water).
A compound that contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. Ozone-depleting substances include CFCs, HCFCs, HBFCs, halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform.
Class I Substance: one of several groups of chemicals with an ozone-depletion potential of 0.2 or higher. Class I substances listed in the Clean Air Act (CAA) include CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform. EPA later added HBFCs and methyl bromide to the list by regulation.
Class II Substance: a chemical with an ozone-depletion potential of less than 0.2. Currently, all of the HCFCs are class II substances.
Persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic.
Performance properties were considered but not recommended by the Surfactants TAC because ingredient performance depends on the application and the formulation which is at the discretion of the formulator and may be unknown to the supplier.
The length of time the chemical can exist in the environment before being destroyed (i.e., transformed) by natural processes.
Reference: EPA PBT Final Rule
A logarithmic scale for expressing the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous
The logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen-ion concentration in moles per liter (e.g., pH = -log10[H+]). Provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. pH = 7 is neutral, pH > 7 is alkaline (basic), and pH < 7 is acidic.
The physical state (solid, liquid, gas, gel, powder, etc.) of the ingredient along with the temperature at which it is found in that state.
Quantitative structure-activity relationships.
As defined by GHS, reproductive toxicity includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.
Related terms: reproductive toxin, reproductive toxicant.
GHS defines a respiratory sensitizer as "a substance that induces hypersensitivity of the airways following inhalation of the substance."
The CleanGredients® Solvents TAC restricted the definition of respiratory sensitizer to "a substance that will induce allergic response of the airways following inhalation of the substance."
Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the risk posed to human health or the environment by the actual or potential presence or use of specific pollutants.
The SIDS dossier contains the minimum information necessary for an initial hazard assessment of an existing chemical. It was developed in 1990 by the OECD
as a systematic means by which member countries could cooperatively review the safety of the roughly 85,000 chemicals used in international commerce. High production volume (HPV) chemicals top the list, under the assumption that production volume is perhaps the best indicator of potential exposure. Data categories covered under the SIDS program include physical and chemical properties, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicological effects, and mammalian toxicity.
The lowest temperature at which self-accelerating decomposition may occur with substance as packaged.
Reference: Bell, I.R., Hardin, E.E., Baldwin, C.M. & Schwartz, G.E.: Increased limbic system symptomatology and sensitizability of young adults with chemical and noise sensitivities. Environmental Research. 1995; 70: 84-97.
Any compound that, in aqueous solution, combines with a metal ion to form a complex in which the ion is substantially inactive. The complex is typically more water soluble than the metal ion.
Related terms: sequestrant,
Reference: Modified from ASTM Standard Terminology Relating to Soaps and Other Detergents.
A substance that will induce an allergic response following skin contact.
A solvent is a liquid that has the ability to dissolve, suspend, or extract other materials without causing chemical change to the material or solvent. Solvents make it possible to process, apply, clean, or separate materials. A solvent for purposes of CleanGredients® is primarily organic and used in the formulation of a cleaning product or to formulate the ingredients used in cleaning products.
The mass of a unit volume of a substance relative to the mass of a unit volume of water at a specified temperature. It is a unitless number.
Defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) as 0 °C (273.15 K) and 105 Pa (1 bar or 0.98692 atm).
Reference: IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd Edition (1997).
The review status of an ingredient. "New" refers to ingredients that are still in the process of submission and for which information entered may be incomplete. "Under Review" refers to ingredients that have been submitted for listing and are awaiting third-party review of components and data for aquatic toxicity and biodegradability. "Reviewed" ingredients have undergone third-party review.
The numeric (or alphanumeric) designation supplier companies use to identify an ingredient (e.g., surfactant, solvent).
The force acting over the surface per unit length of surface perpendicular to the force. It can equally be defined as the energy required to increase the surface area isothermally by one square meter.
Reference: Oxford Reference Online, Dictionary of Chemistry
Any organic substance and/or preparation used in detergents, which has surface-active properties and which consists of one or more hydrophilic and one or more hydrophobic groups of such a nature and size that it is capable of reducing the surface tension of water, and of forming spreading or adsorption monolayers at the water-air interface, and of forming emulsions and/or microemulsions and/or micelles, and of adsorption at water-solid interfaces.
Surfactants may also be used for purposes other than detergents such as emulsifiers, foaming agents, wetting agents, and stabilizers for dispersions.
EPA's Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Substance Inventory: Any substance that is not on the Inventory is classified as a new chemical. If a substance is "new", it can be manufactured for a commercial purpose only if it is subject to an exemption from PMN reporting or a TSCA reporting exclusion (for example, a Low Volume Exemption, or exclusion as a naturally-occurring material). For substances which are "existing", the Inventory can be used to determine if there are restrictions on manufacture or use under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) .There are approximately 75,000 chemical substances, as defined in Section 3 of the TSCA, on the Inventory at this time.
Ultimate aerobic biodegradation means the level of biodegradation achieved when the surfactant is totally used by micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen resulting in its breakdown to carbon dioxide, water and mineral salts of any other elements present (mineralization), as measured by test methods listed in Annex III, and new microbial cellular constituents (biomass). Generally, this refers to >60% mineralizaton within 28 days.
The density of a gas or vapor relative to air. More specifically, the ratio of the mass of a particular volume of a gas to the mass of an equal volume of air under identical conditions of pressure and temperature.
Reference: Oxford Reference Online, Dictionary of Chemistry
The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with the solid or liquid phase of the same substance.
The internal friction of a fluid, caused by molecular attraction, which makes it resist a tendency to flow. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress; may be thought of as a measure of fluid thickness.
Reference: Webster's New World Dictionary, Second College Ed.
Any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions. It has been EPA's policy that organic compounds with a negligible level of reactivity need not be regulated to reduce ozone. The EPA determines whether a given organic compound has "negligible" reactivity by comparing the compound's reactivity to the reactivity of ethane. The EPA lists these compounds in its regulations (at 40 CFR 51.100(s)) and excludes them from the definition of VOC. The chemicals on this list are often called "negligibly reactive" organic compounds.